Frequently Asked Questions
What Is Kiai?
A sudden concentration of physical and mental power, combined with a loud shout used to defeat the opponent. Often also applied effectively to distract the opponent.
What Are Some Of The Working Principles Of Judo?
The use of balance and off-balancing. The use of leverage to achieve greater power. Taking advantage of the opponent’s strength. Taking advantage of the opponent’s weaknesses. The value of yielding and giving way. The proper application of timing, momentum and force.
What Is The English Translation or The Meaning of The Word Judo?
What Is The Purpose In Learning Judo?
The development of character, mind, and body so that one can contribute something of value to the world.
What Are The Other Main Principles In Learning Judo?
The principle of cooperation (jita kyoei), working for mutual welfare and benefit. The principle of maximum efficiency (seiryoku zenyo), using the least amount of effort to achieve the greatest results.
Where Did Judo Come From?
Modern Judo is a martial art based on the traditional Jujutsu fighting and self-defence techniques of Japan.
What Is The Difference Between Judo and Jujutsu?
Judo is the modern scientific application of selected jujutsu techniques that may be practiced for self-development, physical education and sport. Jujutsu retains more dangerous self defense techniques, while Judo can generally be practiced with full force and complete safety. Check this description of Judo by Jigoro Kano himself.
When and Where Did Judo Begin?
Judo was first officially taught at the Kodokan Judo Institute in Tokyo, Japan in 1882.
Who Created Judo?
The father of Judo is Professor Jigoro Kano (1860-1938). He studied jujutsu at an early age and founded the Kodokan to teach the art of Judo.
What Must Every Beginner Learn About Judo?
How to fall (ukemi) and the rules of safety and courtesy.
What Is Kuzushi?
Kuzushi is breaking the balance of an opponent.
What Are Some Of The Ways Kuzushi Can Be Achieved?
- Hands: pushing and pulling.
- Feet: for example, blocking the opponent from stepping forward.
- Body: bending, pivoting, twisting or bumping the opponent to unbalance.
- Voice: distracting, or mentally unbalancing, the opponent.
By What Means Is Kiai Achieved?
- A sudden concentration of the abdominal muscles.
- A forceful exhalation of breath.
- A sharp loud yell or shout.
What Are The Main Types Of Judo Techniques?
Nage waza (throwing techniques), Katame waza (grappling techniques), Atemi waza (striking techniques)
What Are The Types Of Judo Throws?
|Type of Throw||Description|
|Te waza||hand and arm techniques|
|Koshi waza||hip techniques|
|Ashi waza||foot and leg techniques|
|Ma sutemi waza||rear sacrifice techniques|
|Yoko sutemi waza||side sacrifice techniques|
What Is A Combination Throw (Renraku Waza)?
A series of attempted throws in which the last one is successful.
What Is A Counter Throw (Kaeshi Waza)?
A throw that is executed in answer to a throw attempted by the opponent, taking advantage of the opponent’s movements or the loss of balance involved in his throw.
What Are The Types Of Grappling Techniques (Katame Waza)?
|Osae waza||matholds and pins|
|Shime waza||choking and strangling techniques|
|Kansetsu waza||arm bars and joint locking techniques|
What Is Tori and Uke?
Tori is the person executing a technique such as a throw, while uke is the person receiving the technique.
What Are The Main Methods of Judo Training or Practice?
|Uchi komi||repetitive throwing practice.|
What Is Kata?
A formal demonstration of prearranged techniques of Judo. There are forms for throwing techniques (nage no kata), grappling techniques (katame no kata), self defense techniques and other aspects of Judo.
When Did Judo Become An Olympic Sport?
Judo, the only martial art that is a full Olympic medal sport, was an official competition for men in 1964 and has been in every Olympics since. Olympic Judo competition for women was added in 1992.
What Are The Referee and Contestants Called In A Tournament?
The referee is called shimban. The contestants are aka (red) and shiro (white).
What Is The Judo Ranking System?
Achievement in Judo is recognised by a series of ranks or grades. The student ranks are called kyu and are usually differentiated by colored belts (obi). Different colors may be used around the world and in some countries there are more than 6 kyu ranks. The ten black belt, or expert, ranks are called dan. The traditional Judo ranks are:
In the days before Kano created Judo, there was no kyu/dan ranking system in the martial arts. A more traditional method of recognizing achievement was the presentation of certificates or scrolls, often with the secrets of the school inscribed. Kano started the modern rank system when he awarded shodan to two of his senior students (Shiro Saigo and Tsunejiro Tomita) in 1883. Even then, there was no external differentiation between yudansha (black belt ranks) and mudansha (those who hadn’t yet attained black belt ranking). Kano apparently began the custom of having his yudansha wear black obi (belts) in 1886. These obi weren’t the belts karateka and judoka wear today — Kano hadn’t invented the judogi (Judo uniform) yet, and his students were still practicing in kimono. They were the wide obi still worn with formal kimono. In 1907, Kano introduced the modern judogi and its modern obi, but he still only used white and black belt ranks.
Around 1930 Jigoro Kano created a new belt to recognize the special achievements of high ranking black belts. Other arts such as the tea ceremony and swordsmanship provided recognition for their masters in the form of a special tea pot or sword. Jigoro Kano chose to recognize sixth, seventh, and eighth degree black belts with a special obi made of alternating red and white panels. The white color was chosen for purity, and red for the intense desire to train and the sacrifices made. The colors red and white are an enduring symbol of Japan, and they have been used in Judo since Jigoro Kano started the first Red and White Tournament in 1884. He also created the red belt to recognize 9th and 10th dans.
What Is Are English Terms For Japanese Words Used In Judo?
|Ai-yotsu||Same grip used by both persons, either right or left|
|Ashi Waza||Foot techniques|
|Atemi Waza||Striking techniques|
|Ayumi Ashi||Ordinary pattern of walking|
|Chui||Penalty (no longer used)|
|Dan||Black belt rank|
|Debana||Instant of opportunity to break balance as opponent initiates a motion|
|Dojo||School or training hall for studying the way|
|Fusen Gachi||Win by default|
|Go no Sen||Reactive initiative — attacking in response to an attack|
|Goshin Jutsu Waza||Self defense techniques|
|Hando no Kuzushi||Unbalancing by reaction|
|Hansokumake||Most serious penalty, disqualification|
|Hantei||Referee call for judge's decision|
|Happo no Kuzushi||in 8 directions|
|Hiki-wake||No decision–tie or draw|
|Hikite||Pulling hand — usually the hand gripping a sleeve|
|Ippon||One point in competition|
|Jikan||Referee call to stop the clock|
|Jime||Strangle or choke|
|Jita Kyoei||Principle of mutual prosperity|
|Joseki||Place of honor, upper seat|
|Judo||Gentle or flexible way|
|Judo Ichidai||A Judo life–Spending one's life in the diligent pursuit of Judo|
|Judogi||Judo practice uniform|
|Judoka||One who studies Judo|
|Ju no Kata||Forms of gentleness|
|Ju no Ri||Principle of flexibility or yielding|
|Kaeshi Waza||Counter techniques|
|Kake||Completion or execution of technique|
|Kansetsu Waza||Joint locking techniques|
|Kappo (Katsu)||Resuscitation techniques|
|Katame no kata||Forms of grappling|
|Keikoku||Penalty (no longer used)|
|Kenka Yotsu||Opposite grips used by each person, one right/one left|
|Kime no Kata||Classical forms of attack and defence|
|Kinshi Waza||Techniques prohibited in competition|
|Kodansha||High ranking judoka — 5th dan and above|
|Kodokan||Judo institute in Tokyo where Judo was founded|
|Kogeki-Seyo||Request for judoka to be more active|
|Koka||Score less than a yuko|
|Koshi Waza||Hip techniques|
|Kuzushi||Unbalancing the opponent|
|Maai||Space or engagement distance|
|Mae Sabaki||Front movement control|
|Mae Ukemi||Falling forward|
|Masutemi Waza||Rear sacrifice throws|
|Mudansha||Students below black belt rank|
|Nage no Kata||Forms of throwing|
|Nagekomi||Repetitive throwing practice|
|Nage Waza||Throwing techniques|
|Ne Waza||Techniques on the ground|
|Osaekomi||Pin, referee call to begin timing|
|Osaekomi Waza||Pinning techniques|
|Osaekomi Toketa||Escape, stop timing of hold|
|Randori no Kata||Forms of free practice techniques|
|Randori Waza||Techniques for free practice|
|Reiho||Forms of respect, manners, etiquette|
|Renraku Waza||Combination techniques|
|Seika Tanden||A point in the abdomen that is the center of gravity|
|Seiryoku Zenyo||Principle of maximum efficiency|
|Seiza||Formal kneeling posture|
|Shido||Penalty, equal to koka score|
|Shihan||Title for a model teacher or "teacher who sets the standard" (e.g. Kano-shihan)|
|Shime Waza||Choking techniques|
|Shintai||Moving forwards, sideways & backwards|
|Soke||Founder of a martial art or ryu (e.g. Jigoro Kano)|
|Sono Mama||Stop action; command to freeze|
|Sore Made||Finished, time is up|
|Sute Geiko||Randori throwing practice against a higher level judoka|
|Sutemi Waza||Sacrifice techniques|
|Tachi Waza||Standing techniques|
|Tai Sabaki||Body control, turning|
|Te Waza||Hand techniques|
|Tokui Waza||Favorite or best technique|
|Tori||Attacker or person initiating a technique|
|Tsugi Ashi||Walking by bringing one foot up to another|
|Tsukuri||Entry into a technique, positioning|
|Uchikomi||Repeated practice without completion|
|Uke||Person receiving the technique|
|Ushiro Sabaki||Back movement control|
|Ushiro Ukemi||Falling backward|
|Waza Ari||Near ippon or half point|
|Waza ari Awasete Ippon||Two waza-ari for the win|
|Yakusoku Geiko (or renshu)||Pre-arranged free practice|
|Yoko Kaiten Ukemi||Sideways rolling break fall|
|Yoko Sutemi Waza||Side sacrifice throws|
|Yoko Ukemi||Falling sideways|
|Yoshi||Resume action, continue|
|Yudansha||Person who earned the black belt|
|Yudanshakai||Black belt association|
|Yuko||Score less than a waza-ari|
|Yusei Gachi||Win by judge's decision|
|Zenpo Kaiten Ukemi||Forward rolling break fall|
What Are The Principles and Goals of Judo?
Judo, which is translated as the “gentle way”, teaches the principle of flexibility in the application of technique. This is the flexible or efficient use of balance, leverage, and movement in the performance of Judo throws and other skills. Skill, technique and timing, rather than the use of brute strength, are the essential ingredients for success in Judo. For example, in Judo classes you may learn how to give way, rather than use force, to overcome a stronger opponent.
The principles of Judo, such as “Maximum Efficiency” and “Mutual Welfare and Benefit”, can also be used in our dealings with others in life. The ultimate goal in Judo is to develop oneself to the maximum extent possible, always striving for perfection, so that you can contribute something of value to the world.
What is Kodokan Judo?
Judo is many things to different people. It is a fun sport, an art, a discipline, a recreational or social activity, a fitness program, a means of self-defense or combat, and a way of life. It is all of these and more.
Kodokan Judo comes to us from the fighting system of feudal Japan. Founded in 1882 by Dr. Jigoro Kano, Judo is a refinement of the ancient martial art of Jujutsu. Dr. Kano, President of the University of Education, Tokyo, studied these ancient forms and integrated what he considered to be the best of their techniques into what is now the modern sport of Judo.
Judo was introduced into the Olympic Games in 1964 and is practiced by millions of people throughout the world today. People practice Judo to excel in competition, to stay in shape, to develop self-confidence, and for many other reasons. But most of all, people do Judo just for the fun of it.
When And Where Do You Hold Judo Lessons?
Information about our lessons can be found here.
What Should I Wear?
For your first few lessons you will need to wear loose fitting track suit bottoms, a sweat shirt or similar, No hard or metal objects ie: jewellery or hair bands.
There is no need to wear a Judo suit (a Gi) to your first few lessons, for children it is an advantage not to wear one for two reasons:
- Whilst relatively cheap (around £22) it is best to find out if your child likes the sport before going to the expense of buying a Judo Gi.
- Children without a Gi stand out to the instructor as a new member and hence can be given that little extra attention.
What Does It Cost To Learn Judo?
The lessons cost £3.00 to £3.50 per session (first lesson Free)
Are You Affiliated To A Governing Body?
Yes, we are affiliated to the British Judo Association.
Is Judo Fun?
As in all sports, Judo has a strict set of rules that governs competition and ensures safety. For those who want to test their skills, Judo offers the opportunity for competition at all skill levels, from club to national tournaments, to the Olympic Games. There are separate weight divisions for men and women, and boys and girls.
Judo is best known for it’s spectacular throwing techniques but also involves considerable grappling on the ground utilizing specialized pins, control holds, arm locks, and Judo choking techniques. Judo emphasizes safety, and full physical activity for top conditioning. Judo is learned on special mats for comfort and safety.
Judo is unique in that all age groups, both sexes, and most disabled persons can participate together in learning and practicing the sport. Judo is an inexpensive, year-round activity, that appeals to people from all walks of life. Many people over sixty years of age enjoy the sport, as well as very young boys and girls.
Judo develops self-discipline and respect for oneself and others. Judo provides the means for learning self-confidence, concentration, and leadership skills, as well as physical coordination, power, and flexibility. As a sport that has evolved from a fighting art, it develops complete body control, fine balance, and fast reflexive action. Above all, it develops a sharp reacting mind well-coordinated with the same kind of body. Judo training gives a person an effective self-defense system if the need arises.
What Are The Judo Ranks?
Achievement in Judo is recognized by awarding different color belts. The six student ranks are called kyu. The ten black belt, or expert, ranks are called dan. Juniors under 17 years old earn different color belts than seniors.
What Is The Difference Between Judo and Karate?
Judo is a close contact sport being a highly developed safe form of wrestling, it is a modern sport derived from the martial art of Jujitsu. Judo players (Judoka) wear strong loose fitting judo suits (Gi’s). They grapple and try to throw their opponents to the floor. Once on the floor the contest can continue with opponents trying to hold each other down to win the contest.
Karate is a system of unarmed combat using feet, hands and elbows as weapons, karate could be considered vaguely similar to boxing. The players wear much lighter weight suits and use punches, blocks, kicks and (dependant on the form) some throw’s to win a contest.